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Aegle marmelos



Bilwa, Shriphala



Bengal quince, stone apple, wood apple

Hindi : Bel, Duraruddha, Trisika, Shivadruma, Sadaphala

Latin name


Aegle marmelos




Morphology: A medium sized, deciduous tree with spines. The leaves are divided into three lances like leaflets (appears like clove leaf). The leaflets are smooth, brittle and emits lemony odour when crushed. The flowers are sweet scented, fleshy, and creamy-white. The fruit is a woody berry. The fruit pulp is sticky and tastes sweet and astringent. The stem bark is greyish and soft.


Ayurvedic Pharmacodynamic properties:



Kashaya (Astringent), Tikta (Bitter)             



Ruksha (Dry), Laghu (Light)



Ushna (Hot)



Katu (Pungent)



Kapha-Vatashamak (Alleviates Kapha and Vata Dosha)

Medicinal Properties :

It has astringent, anti-diarrhoeal, appetizer ,cooling , carminative, febrifuge and digestant properties. The raw fruit is an appetizer, digestant and an astringent, whereas the ripened fruit is astringent, sweet but mild laxative in properties. The ripened fruit is heavy to digest and in large doses, it causes flatulence and abates peristalsis.


Chemical composition:


The leaves contain alkaloids including aegelenine and aegeline. The roots and aerial parts contain skimmianine.


7,8-Dimethoxy-1-hydroxy-2-methyl anthraquinone and 6-hydroxy-1-methoxy-3-methyl anthraquinone.


The fruit contains marmelosin,  marmelide and psoralen and the roots umbelliferone, psoralen, xanthotoxin, dimethoxy coumarin, scopoletin: The heartwood yields a-xanthotoxol-8-0-β-D-glucoside and the seeds contain luvangetin.


The fruit contains tannic acid. The tannin content of the fruit and rind is 7-9% and 18-22% respectively. The leaves also contain condensed tannins.


The roots contain β-sitosterol and lupeo.

Medicinal uses :

Antiulcer activity:  It helps in healing of ulcerated intestinal surfaces. .Luvangetin in the dose of 25mg/kg by oral administration, showed significant protection against pylorus-ligated and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats and cold restraint stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats and guinea pigs. The mechanism of action appeared to be due to mucosal defensive factors.

Antimicrobial activity: The essential oil isolated from the leaves was evaluated in a spore germination assay and variable efficacy observed against different fungal isolates. The seed oil was also antibacterial .

Hypoglycaemic activity: The aqueous extract of the leaves exhibited significant hypoglycaemic activity in both normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-diabetic rats, assessed as a stimulation of the surviving cells to release more insulin and substantiated by elevated levels of plasma insulin.  The extract also appeared to help in the regeneration of the damaged pancreas. Bilva is given with Bakula skin and milk to treat diabetes.

Antidiarrhoeal activity, Irritable Bowel Syndrome:
The tender fruit of  Bilva  being
bitter, astringent, antilaxative, digestive helps in treating Diarrhoea, Dysentry, Fatulence, difficulty in Micturition, Fever, Vomiting and Colic. Diarrhoea in children is controlled by giving decoction of Bilva , Musta and Dhataki with Honey. Juice of its leaves is the best remedy for worms.

Antiinflammatory activity: The aqueous extract of roots is reported to show anti microbial effect on both acute and chronic inflammation. Warm decoction of Bilva is used to dip the patients with Haemorrhoids. The bilva oil also helps to reduce inflammation of joints if massaged regularly on joints.

Culinary use :  The fruit pulp is combined with sugar and Tamarind to prepare a refreshing drink in Indian homes known as Squash. Jam ,Murabbas and Nectar is also  prepared by it.

Memory Booster:  Bael fruit powder , sugar and butter helps in improving memory .

Expectorant:  Bael fuitif taken with Jaggery helps to clean phlegm.

Wound Healer: Powder of roots, leaves and  fruits mixed with ghee helps in healing wounds.

Useful parts


Root ,leaves, fruits, unripe and  ripe  fruit pulp



Churna (powder) 3-6 gm; Swarasa (juice) 10-20 ml, Decoction:28-56ml

Important formulations


Dashmularishta, Jeerakabilwadilehya, Bilwadivati,Bilva taila, Bilvapancaka kvatha, Bilvadi curna, bilvadi ghrta, Bilvamuladi gutika, Anu taila

Home remedies:

  1. Juice of mature fruit of Bilva, is effective in the bowel disturbances like recurrent constipation.
  2. Pulp of unripe fruit of Bilva is so effective in the diarrhea, dysentery, and sprue.
  3. Powder of dry pulp of this unripe fruit is also effective in loose motions.
  4. In chronic dysenteric conditions, accompanied by loose stools alternating with occasional constipation, the ripe fruit is widely used in different formulations.
  5. OIl medicated with Bilva is used to treat ear diseases as Karnapurana.
  6. Fomentation is done using its leaves in painful ribs.
  7. Fresh juice of Bilva leaves is used in Conjunctivitis.


These clinical studies show that in chronic dysenteric conditions, accompanied by loose stools alternating with occasional constipation, the ripe fruit is widely used in different formulations. Chronic diarrhea or dysentery responds well to bilva, this therapeutic effect being included in the British Pharmacopoeia. It is also been used for treating giardiasis. The bark and leaves are used in medicated retention enema. The root improves appetite and relieves nausea. It is also used as a mild sedative. The extract of leaves is used in diabetes mellitus. The root is administered with other plants during post-partum period. The oil is used as eardrops. The extract of leaves has shown isotropic effects on the heart in experimental animals. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of bilwa have been reported in various clinical research works

We are delighted to announce that Chakrapani Center has been awarded the following ISO (International Organization for Standardization) certifications. ISO 9001:2008 is for our quality management system and ISO 22000:2005 for following highest level of food safety standards in our manufacturing facility.

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