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1. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

Sahney M, Chaurasia S.

Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh)-211002, India. manjusahney@rediffmail.com.

Using .a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004 - November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February - May was the principle pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September - October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

PMID: 19061265 [PubMed - in process]

2. Reversible changes in the antifertility induced by Aegle marmelos in male albino rats.

Chauhan A, Agarwal M.

Reproductive Physiology and Biochemistry Section, Center for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Rajasthan, India.

To study the effects of Aegle marmelos on the testicular reproductive system, a 50% ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos leaves (AMLEt) was fed orally to male albino rats at the dose levels of 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt./day for 60 days. Recovery was assessed for an additional 120 days. Oral administration of AMLEt did not cause body weight loss. The motility and sperm concentration were significantly reduced along with complete inhibition of fertility at a dose of 300 mg/kg. The level of serum testosterone also declined and spermatogenesis was impaired. The number of normal tubules and the height of epithelial cells of the caput and cauda were reduced significantly. The cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells and mature Leydig cells was reduced along with a dose dependent reduction of preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes. Thus the antifertility effects of Aegle marmelos seemed to be mediated by disturbances in structure and function in testicular somatic cells including Leydig and Sertoli cells resulting in an alteration in physio-morphological events of spermatogenesis. However, complete recovery was observed after a 120 day withdrawal.

PMID: 19052962 [PubMed - in process]

3. Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of -Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia.

Bianchi N, Zuccato C, Lampronti I, Borgatti M, Gambari R.

GenTech-for-Thal, Laboratory for the Development of Pharmacological and Pharmacogenomic Therapy of Thalassaemia, Biotechnology Centre, Ferrara, Italy. gam@unife.it.

The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of beta-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of beta-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of beta-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and gamma-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

PMID: 18955291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4. Activation of apoptosis by 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde, a novel compound from Aegle marmelos.

Subramaniam D, Giridharan P, Murmu N, Shankaranarayanan NP, May R, Houchen CW, Ramanujam RP, Balakrishnan A, Vishwakarma RA, Anant S.

Department of Medicine, OU Cancer Institute, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104, USA.

We have identified a natural compound that activates apoptosis of epithelial cancer cells through activation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), TNF receptor (TNFR)-associated death domain (TRADD), and caspases. The molecule 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde (HDNC, marmelin) was isolated and characterized from ethyl acetate fraction of extracts of Aegle marmelos. HDNC treatment inhibited the growth of HCT-116 colon cancer tumor xenografts in vivo. Immunostaining for CD31 showed that there was a significant reduction in microvessels in the HDNC-treated animals, coupled with decreased cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. Using hexoseaminidase assay, we determined that HDNC inhibits proliferation of HCT-116 colon and HEp-2 alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the cancer cells showed increased levels of activated caspase-3 and induced G(1) cell cycle arrest, which was suppressed by caspase-3 inhibitors. HDNC induced TNF-alpha, TNFR1, and TRADD mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, caspase-8 and Bid activation, and cytochrome c release, were observed, suggesting the existence of a cross-talk between death receptor and the mitochondrial pathways. HDNC inhibited AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation both in cells in culture and in tumor xenografts. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and luciferase reporter assays showed that HDNC significantly suppressed TNF-alpha-mediated activation and translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). This was further confirmed by Western blot analysis of nuclear extracts wherein levels of RelA, the p65 component of NF-kappaB, were significantly less in cells treated with HDNC. Together, the data suggest that the novel compound HDNC (marmelin) is a potent anticancer agent that induces apoptosis during G(1) phase of the cell cycle and could be a potential chemotherapeutic candidate.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18922933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Aegle marmelos Correa. against CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress and early tumor events.

Khan TH, Sultana S.

Section of Chemoprevention and Nutrition Toxicology, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), New Delhi, India.

The antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect on early tumor promoter markers of A. marmelos (25 and 50 mg/Kg b. wt. orally) have been evaluated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated for seven consecutive days with A. marmelos prior to CCl(4) (1 mL Kg(- 1) body weight p. o., in corn oil [1:1 v/v]) treatment. Pre-treatment with A. marmelos suppressed lipid peroxidation (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and release of serum toxicity marker enzymes viz, SGOT, LDH, SGPT dose-dependently and significantly (p < 0.001). Hepatic antioxidant status viz, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), quinone reductase (QR), catalase (CAT) were concomitantly restored in A. marmelos-treated groups (p < 0.001). In addition, A. marmelos pretreatment also prevented the CCl(4)-enhanced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and hepatic DNA synthesis significantly (p < 0.001). In conclusion, carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity was strikingly attenuated by A. marmelos treatment and the study gives some insight into the mechanisms involved in diminution of free radical generating toxicants and enhancement of the antioxidant armory, hence preventing further tissue damage, injury and hyperproliferation. Thus, these findings indicate that A. marmelos attenuates CCl(4)-mediated hepatic oxidative stress, toxicity, tumor promotion and subsequent cell proliferation response in Wistar rats.

PMID: 18830880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

6. Docking of molecules identified in bioactive medicinal plants extracts into the p50 NF-kappaB transcription factor: correlation with inhibition of NF-kappaB/DNA interactions and inhibitory effects on IL-8 gene expression.

Piccagli L, Fabbri E, Borgatti M, Bezzerri V, Mancini I, Nicolis E, Dechecchi MC, Lampronti I, Cabrini G, Gambari R.

BioPharmaNet, ER-GenTech, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ferrara, Italy. pcclra@unife.it

BACKGROUND: The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a very interesting target molecule for the design on anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic drugs. However, the application of the widely-used molecular docking computational method for the virtual screening of chemical libraries on NF-kappaB is not yet reported in literature. Docking studies on a dataset of 27 molecules from extracts of two different medicinal plants to NF-kappaB-p50 were performed with the purpose of developing a docking protocol fit for the target under study. RESULTS: We enhanced the simple docking procedure by means of a sort of combined target- and ligand-based drug design approach. Advantages of this combination strategy, based on a similarity parameter for the identification of weak binding chemical entities, are illustrated in this work with the discovery of a new lead compound for NF-kappaB. Further biochemical analyses based on EMSA were performed and biological effects were tested on the compound exhibiting the best docking score. All experimental analysis were in fairly good agreement with molecular modeling findings. CONCLUSION: The results obtained sustain the concept that the docking performance is predictive of a biochemical activity. In this respect, this paper represents the first example of successfully individuation through molecular docking simulations of a promising lead compound for the inhibition of NF-kappaB-p50 biological activity and modulation of the expression of the NF-kB regulated IL8 gene.

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PMID: 18768082 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC2543017

7. Phenylethyl cinnamides: a new series of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from the leaves of Aegle marmelos.

Phuwapraisirisan P, Puksasook T, Jong-Aramruang J, Kokpol U.

Natural Products Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. preecha.p@chula.ac.th

A series of phenylethyl cinnamides, which included new compounds named anhydromarmeline, aegelinosides A and B, were isolated from Aegle marmelos leaves as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. The structures of new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data and chemical degradation. Of compounds isolated, anhydroaegeline revealed the most potent inhibitory effect against alpha-glucosidase with IC(50) value of 35.8 microM. The present result also supports ethnopharmacological use of A. marmelos as a remedy for diabetes mellitus.

Publication Types:


PMID: 18760601 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. In vitro effect of four herbal plants on the motility of Brugia malayi microfilariae.

Sahare KN, Anandharaman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Gajalakshmi D, Goswami K, Reddy MV.

P.G. Department of Microbiology & Rajiv Gandhi Biotechnology Centre, RTM, Nagpur University, Nagpur.

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Disease burden due to lymphatic filariasis is disproportionately high despite mass drug administration with conventional drugs. Usage of herbal drugs in traditional medicine is quite well known but largely empirical. Hence the present study was designed to screen the in vitro antifilarial effect of four herbal plants on Brugia malayi. METHODS: Motility of microfilariae of B. malayi after incubation for 48 h with aqueous/methanol extracts of Vitex negundo L. (roots), Butea monosperma L. (roots and leaves), Ricinus communis L. (leaves), and Aegle marmelos Corr. (leaves) was explored in the concentration range of 20 to 100 ng/ml for possible antifilarial effect by comparing with suitable solvent control. RESULTS: Butea monosperma leaves and roots, Vitex negundo root and Aegle marmelo leaves showed significant inhibition of motility of microfilariae as compared to controls whereas inhibitory activity demonstrated by Ricinus communis L. leaves was not significant. Antifilarial effects imparted by all these extracts were found to be a function of their relative concentrations. Inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) for the plant extracts with significant antifilarial activity against Brugia malayi microfilariae in in vitro system have been derived to be 82, 83 and 70 ng/ml for Vitex negundo L., Butea monosperma L. and Aegle marmelos Corr. respectively. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The present study recorded significant antifilarial effect of all plant extracts studied except for Ricinus communis L. leaves and contributes to the development of database for novel drug candidates for human lymphatic filariasis.

PMID: 18653910 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Screening of antioxidant potential of selected barks of Indian medicinal plants by multiple in vitro assays.

Kumari A, Kakkar P.

Herbal Research Section, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, P.O. Box-80, M. G. Marg, Lucknow-226001, India.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antioxidant potential in herbal extract barks of five therapeutically important medicinal plants native to India, i.e. Crataeva nurvala Buch.-Ham., Buchanania lanzan Spreng., Aegle marmelos Corr., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC., and Cedrela toona Roxb. METHODS: Standardized aqueous alcoholic extracts from the selected barks having different target radicals, such as superoxide radical, nitric oxide, ABTS radical, and peroxidative decomposition of phospholipids, were prepared and screened by multiple in vitro assays. These extracts were also tested for total phenolic and tannin content and correlated with antioxidant capacity. RESULTS: Total phenolic and tannin contents were found to be the highest in C. nurvala (195 GAE mg/g and 218.3 mg/g CE). SOD mimetic activity was found to be the highest in Crataeva nurvula, although all barks showed activity more than 100 units/mg extract. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential was found to be the highest in Crataeva nurvala (83.4% inhibition of MDA formation/10 microg extract), and also showed a comparatively high NO quenching capacity (45.5% per 10 microg extract). The highest NO quenching potential was found in Aegle marmelos (47.3% per 10 microg extract). Cedrela toona showed the lowest LPO inhibitory potential and NO quenching capacity (50.5% and 30.5%, respectively). Buchanania lanzan, a medicinal plant extensively used for inflammatory disorders and Dalbergia sissoo also showed 72.5% and 69.1% LPO inhibitory potential/10 microg extract. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged from 0.24 to 0.39 mmol/L TEAC/mg extract, indicating that all the barks tested had ABTS+ radical quenching capacity. CONCLUSION: Bark of Crataeva nurvula has the highest antioxidant capacity and a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and their plendic content was found.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18478975 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. Differential expression of ompC and ompF in multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri by aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos, altering its susceptibility toward beta-lactam antibiotics.

Raja SB, Murali MR, Devaraj SN.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600025, India.

Steadily increasing resistance among Shigella to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, and tetracycline has compromised the utility of these commonly used antimicrobial agents. Also, undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics have triggered immense interest in search of alternative therapies using medicinal plants. One such medicinal plant used since ancient times to cure diarrhea is Aegle marmelos. The present study exemplifies the susceptibility of beta-lactam-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri toward beta-lactam antibiotics, when grown in the presence of aqueous extract of A. marmelos (AEAM), by altering porin channels. This was demonstrated by antibiotic sensitivity test using disc diffusion method and MIC test. Susceptibility toward beta-lactam antibiotic is associated with changes in outer membrane porins OmpC (approximately 42 kDa) and OmpF (approximately 38 kDa) and cytosolic proteins of approximately 26 kDa, OmpR, a transcriptional regulator. Expression of ompF is increased in S. dysenteriae and S. flexneri grown in the presence of AEAM due to down-regulation of ompR, which is conformed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, AEAM influences susceptibility of beta-lactam-resistant Shigella toward beta-lactam antibiotics by altering porin channels. Hence, AEAM along with beta-lactam can be used for treatment of multidrug-resistant Shigella.

Publication Types:


PMID: 18358664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Anti-microfilarial activity of methanolic extract of Vitex negundo and Aegle marmelos and their phytochemical analysis.

Sahare KN, Anandhraman V, Meshram VG, Meshram SU, Reddy MV, Tumane PM, Goswami K.

P G Department of Microbiology & Rajiv Gandhi Biotechnology Centre, RTM, Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033, India.

In the present study, methanolic extracts of roots of Vitex negundo L. and extracts of leaves of Vitex negundo L., Ricinus communis L. and Aegle marmelos Corr. were explored for possible antifilarial effect against Brugia malayi microfilariae. It was observed that among the herbal extracts, root extract of Vitex negundo L. and leaves extract of Aegle marmelos Corr. at 100 ng/ml concentration showed complete loss of motility of microfilariae after 48 hr of incubation. Thin layer chromatography of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin and flavonoids in the roots of Vitex negundo L. and coumarin in the leaves of Aegle marmelos Corr.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18335811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12. Decreased muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression in the cerebral cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and Aegle marmelose leaf extract's therapeutic function.

Gireesh G, Reas SK, Jobin M, Paulose CS.

Molecular Neurobiology and Cell Biology Unit, Centre for Neuroscience, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682 022, Kerala, India.

AIM: In the present study we have investigated the changes in the total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor ([(3)H]QNB) binding and gene expression in the cerebral cortex of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic, insulin and aqueous extract of Aegle marmelose leaf treated diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in rats by intrafemoral injection of streptozotocin. Aegle marmelose leaves was given orally to one group of rats at a dosage of 1g/kg body weight per day for fourteen days. Blood glucose and plasma insulin level were measured. Muscarinic and Muscarinic M1 receptor binding studies were done in the cerebral cortex of experimental rats. Muscarinic M1 receptor gene expression was studied using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Scatchard analysis for total muscarinic receptors in cerebral cortex showed that the B(max) was decreased significantly (p<0.001) in diabetic rats with a significant decrease (p<0.01) in the K(d) when compared to control group. Binding analysis of Muscarinic M1 receptors showed that B(max) was decreased significantly (p<0.001) in diabetic group when compared to control group. The K(d) also decreased significantly (p<0.01) when compared to control group. The binding parameters were reversed to near control by the treatment of diabetic rats with Aegle marmelose. Real-Time PCR analysis also showed a similar change in the mRNA levels of muscarinic M1 receptors. CONCLUSION: The results showed that there is decrease in total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptors during diabetes which is up regulated by insulin and Aegle marmelose leaf extract treatment. This has clinical significance in therapeutic management of diabetes.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18201849 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation.

C Jagetia G.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576 104, India.

Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities.

PMID: 18188408 [PubMed - in process]

PMCID: PMC2127223

14. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

Abdul Rahuman A, Gopalakrishnan G, Venkatesan P, Geetha K

Unit of Bioactive Natural Products, Department of Zoology, C.Abdul Hakeem College, Melvisharam 632 509, India. abdulrahuman6@hotmail.com

Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent.

Publication Types:

PMID: 18176816 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Suppression of fertility in male albino rats following the administration of 50% ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos.

Chauhan A, Agarwal M, Kushwaha S, Mutreja A.

Department of Zoology, Reproductive Physiology and Biochemistry Section, Center for Advanced Studies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India.

BACKGROUND: Plants have served as a natural source of antifertility substances. The reactivated interest in the evaluation of some lead plants for fertility prompted us to undertake studies on the antifertility potential of Aegle marmelos leaves. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty percent ethanolic extract from the leaves of A. marmelos (AMLEt) was prepared. The effect of A. marmelos leaf extract on the reproductive system of male albino rats was investigated at three different doses, namely, 100, 200 and 300 mg(-1) kg (-1) day(-1) for each rat for 60 days. Recovery was also investigated after a withdrawal of 120 days. RESULTS: All the major accessory sex organs shed weight postadministration of the extract. There was a marked reduction in motility and density of the sperm derived from cauda epididymis of the treated animals. A. marmelos reduced fertility of male rats by 100% at the 300-mg dose level. Serum testosterone levels also decreased significantly in all the experimental groups. The protein, glycogen and lipid peroxidation content of the testes was significantly reduced at the highest dose level; a highly significant increase in testicular cholesterol was observed along with a highly significant reduction in the sialic acid contents of testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles. Blood tests did not point to distress in any of the vital organs. Withdrawal of the extract restored all the altered parameters including organ weights, fertility, testosterone levels and tissue biochemistry to control levels after 120 days. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, it is inferred that the leaf extract of A. marmelos (AMLEt) suppresses fertility in male rats. Complete recovery of fertility was observed following the withdrawal of drug. Absence of any deleterious effect on the vital organs points to the safe use of the extract.

PMID: 18061707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


16. Influence of umbelliferone on membrane-bound ATPases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar - 608002, Tamilnadu, India.

The activities of membrane-bound ATPases are altered both in erythrocytes and tissues of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and diabetic patients. Umbelliferone (UMB), a natural antioxidant, is a benzopyrone occurring in nature, and it is present in the fruits of golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Earlier we evaluated and reported the effect of UMB on plasma insulin and glucose, and this study was designed to evaluate the effect of umbelliferone on membrane-bound ATPases in erythrocytes and tissues (liver, kidney and heart) of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing 180-200 g, were made diabetic by an intraperitonial administration of STZ (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with UMB dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diabetic rats were also treated with glibenclamide as drug control, for 45 days. In our study, diabetic rats had increased level of blood glucose and lipid peroxidation markers, and decreased level of plasma insulin and decreased activities of total ATPases, (Na(+)+K(+))-ATPase, low affinity Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase in erythrocytes and tissues. Restoration of plasma insulin and glucose by UMB and glibenclamide seemed to have reversed insulin, glucose and lipid peroxidation markers, and diabetes-induced alterations in the activities of membrane-bound ATPases. Thus, our results show that the normalization of membrane-bound ATPases in various tissues, is due to improved glycemic control and antioxidant activity by UMB.

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PMID: 17652835 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17. Effect of umbelliferone on tail tendon collagen and haemostatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

Ramesh B, Pugalendi KV.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu, India.

Diabetes mellitus is known to affect collagen in various tissues. Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a natural antioxidant and benzopyrone, is found in golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Plant-derived phenolic coumarins have been shown to act as dietary antioxidants. In this study, we have investigated the influence of umbelliferone on collagen content and its effects on the tail tendon in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats (180-200 g) were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with umbelliferone for 45 days. Diabetic rats had increased glucose and decreased insulin levels. Tail tendons of diabetic rats had increased total collagen, glycation and fluorescence, and decreased levels of neutral, acid and pepsin-soluble collagens. We have studied the effect of umbelliferone on haemostatic function because umbelliferone is also a coumarin derivative like the anticoagulant, warfarin. Diabetic rats had a significant decrease in prothrombin, clotting and bleeding time, and treatment with umbelliferone made these parameters almost normal. Our results show that umbelliferone controls glycaemia and has a beneficial effect on collagen content and its properties, i.e. collagen related parameters, in the tail tendon, which indicates recovery from the risk (recovery of animals from the risk of complications) of collagen-mediated diabetic polyneuropathy and diabetic nephropathy.

Publication Types

PMID: 17651305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18. Rapid densitometric method for simultaneous analysis of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol in herbal raw materials using HPTLC.

Dhalwal K, Shinde VM, Mahadik KR, Namdeo AG.

Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Erandwane, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

The term 'phenolics' refers to a vast array of biologically active compounds ubiquitous in plants, many of which have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. Umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol are widely occurring phenolic compounds of plant origin, for which many biological activities against chronic diseases have been reported. A simple HPTLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol. These three compounds were quantified in the dried fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos and in the fruit of Trachyspermum ammi and Foeniculam vulgare. The technique enables rapid and sensitive simultaneous analysis in different samples. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy in accordance with ICH guidelines. The accuracy of the method was checked by a recovery study conducted at three different levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 98.88% for umbelliferone, 100.104% for psoralen, and 99.33% for eugenol. The proposed HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate. It can be used for routine quality control of herbal raw materials as well as formulations containing any or all of these compounds.

Publication Types:

PMID: 17628870 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19. Safety evaluation of aqueous extracts from Aegle marmelos and Stevia rebaudiana on reproduction of female rats.

Saenphet K, Aritajat S, Saenphet S, Manosroi J, Manosroi A.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. k_saenphet@yahoo.com

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of a Thai medicinal plant, Aegle marmelos, and a non-caloric sweetener, Stevia rebaudiana, on the reproduction of female rats. Female rats were treated orally with aqueous extract of A. marmelos (6%) and S. rebaudiana at various concentrations (0, 0.2, 1, or 10%) for 60 days (1 ml/day) before mating. The control rats received only distilled water. At the end of the treatment period, treated females were mated with untreated males and the effects on reproduction were examined at day 14 of pregnancy. No notable abnormalities were observed in any of the pregnant rats. The number of corpus lutea, implanted and dead fetuses, as well as the sizes of the fetuses in the treated rats were not significantly different from those of the controls. Based on these results, it may be concluded that aqueous extracts of A. marmelos and S. rebaudiana at the concentrations used in this study do not alter the reproduction of female rats.

PMID: 17547081 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20. Inhibition of radiation-induced clastogenicity by Aegle marmelos (L.) correa in mice bone marrow exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation.

Jagetia GC, Venkatesh P.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576 104, India. gc.jagetia@gmail.com

The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic (MPCE), normochromatic erythrocytes (MNCE), and polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio (PCE/NCE), was studied in the bone marrow of mice orally administered with 0, 200, 225, 250, 275 and 300 mg/kg body weight of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AME). Treatment of mice with AME, once daily for 5 consecutive days, before exposure to 2 Gy resulted in a significant decline in the frequency of MPCE when compared to the non-drug-treated irradiated control. The greatest reduction in MPCE was observed for 250 mg/kg body weight AME, accompanied by the highest polychromatic erythrocyte to normochromatic erythrocyte ratio, in comparison with the non-drug-treated irradiated control. Therefore, further studies were carried out using this dose of AME, where the animals were administered with 250 mg/kg body weight of AME before exposure to 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy of gamma-radiation and evaluated at 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours post-irradiation. Whole body irradiation of mice to different doses of gamma-radiation resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of MPCE at all post-irradiation times. Treatment of 250 mg/kg AME orally (p.o.) before irradiation significantly reduced the frequency of MPCE at all post-treatment times. The frequency of MPCE increased with time, reached a peak level at 24 hours, and declined thereafter. The occurrence of MNCE has also shown a pattern similar to MPCE, except that the MNCE frequency reached a peak level by 48 hours. The AME significantly reduced the frequency of MNCE at all post-irradiation times, when compared to the non-drug-treated irradiated group. Treatment of mice with AME before exposure to different doses of gamma-radiation resulted in the inhibition of a radiation-induced decline in the PCE/NCE ratio, when compared with the concurrent irradiated controls. To gain insight into the mechanism of action, AME was tested for its antioxidant effects in cell-free chemical systems using H2O2/FeSO4 to generate hydroxyl (*OH) radicals, which were measured by a fluorescent probe, 2V, 7V-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH/DA). Xanthine/xanthine oxidase was used to generate superoxide (O2*-) anion radical, which was measured by a fluorescent probe dihydroethidium (DHE). AME significantly reduced fluorescence in a concentration dependent manner, indicating its efficacy to scavenge free radicals. Our results demonstrate that one of the mechanism of reduction in the radiation-induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow by AME may be due to scavenging of free radicals and elevation in the antioxidant status, as previously reported.

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